September 15, 2020 by Yacin Nadji
CVE-2020-1472 aka Zerologon, disclosed by Tom Tervoort of Secura, is an illustrative case study of how a small implementation mistake in cryptographic routines cascades into a privilege escalation vulnerability that allows an attacker to change the password of any unpatched Active Directory domain controllers to which they have network access. Upon successful exploitation, the attacker is free to alter additional credentials, escalate to the level of a domain admin, and move laterally to other machines in the domain. At a high level, the encryption scheme as implemented has a 1/256 chance of encrypting a plaintext message of all zeroes to a ciphertext message of all zeroes, which eventually leads to setting a zero length password. If this sounds as interesting to you as it was to me, I’d recommend reading the more in-depth technical report also from Secura.
To assist, we’ve open sourced a Zeek package that detects both attempted and successful exploits. Using Secura’s excellent, defanged proof-of-concept Python tool, we generated sample PCAPs for unsuccessful and successful attacks on both Windows Server 2016 and 2019 domain controllers. I would be remiss if I didn’t also mention these techniques for detection: Sigma rule by SOCPrime, and Splunk by Shannon Davis. These served as inspiration for the Zeek package.
There are fully functional exploit tools for this CVSS 10.0 rated vulnerability already floating around publicly, so I recommend reading Microsoft’s support guide entry, patching your domain controllers, and looking for signs of historic exploitation attempts in your logs, and looking for future attempts with this Zeek package.
We always appreciate feedback on your experience with using the package, or any suggestions for improvements.
#CVE-2020-1472 #CVSS10 #Zerologon #Netlogon #Zeek #LateralMovement